Occupational risk factors for lung cancer in women: results of a case-control study in Germany

Am J Ind Med. 1999 Jul;36(1):90-100. doi: 10.1002/(sici)1097-0274(199907)36:1<90::aid-ajim13>3.0.co;2-v.


Background: To investigate the association between lung cancer and occupational factors in women.

Methods: Six hundred eighty-six women with lung cancer and 712 controls matched for age and region were interviewed to gather occupational histories and information about other risk factors and confounders. Odds ratios (OR) and 95%-confidence intervals (CI) were calculated.

Results: There were 11 cases and 2 controls who reported occupational asbestos exposure. Significantly elevated risks (P < 0.05, smoking-adjusted), were observed in the following industries: chemical, oil (OR 3.7), pottery, glass (OR 2.5), engine, vehicle building (OR 2.2), paper, wood, print (OR 1.9), cleaning service, hairdressing, housekeeping, waste disposal (OR 1.5); and occupations: assemblers, unskilled metal workers (OR 2.5), stock clerks, etc. (OR 1.6), restaurant owners and hoteliers (OR 2.7), as well as waitresses and travel attendants (OR 2.6).

Conclusions: The study provides evidence that both occupations previously observed as hazardous in males, and occupations of particular significance for women only, play a role in the risk of lung cancer in women.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Confidence Intervals
  • Female
  • Germany / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Logistic Models
  • Lung Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • Lung Neoplasms / etiology*
  • Middle Aged
  • Occupational Diseases / epidemiology
  • Occupational Diseases / etiology*
  • Occupational Exposure / adverse effects*
  • Occupational Exposure / statistics & numerical data
  • Occupations / classification
  • Occupations / statistics & numerical data
  • Odds Ratio
  • Risk Factors
  • Smoking / adverse effects
  • Smoking / epidemiology
  • Time Factors
  • Women's Health*