Glycine conjugation of a series of benzoic acid derivatives was investigated in mouse kidney mitochondria. The chlorine and methyl substitutions in the para- and meta-positions of the benzene ring yielded an increase in glycine conjugation. The acids with a methoxy group showed a low degree of glycine conjugation. In addition, the acids with nitro or amino groups were conjugated to a slight extent with glycine. The in vitro conjugation of salicylic acid with glycine occurred not in liver but in kidney. The specificity of the renal medium chain acyl-CoA synthetase catalyzing the first reaction of glycine conjugation was also examined. The enzyme accepted not only medium chain fatty acids but also aromatic and arylacetic acids. The highest activity was shown with hexanoic acid. High activities were observed for benzoic acid derivatives with alkyl and alkoxyl groups in the para- and meta-positions of the benzene ring. An ortho-substituted acid exhibited no activity. In addition, the enzyme was less active with valproic acid, tranexamic acid, indomethacin and ketoprofen. The enzyme was inhibited by diflunisal, 2-hydroxydodecanoic acid and salicylic acid, which did not act as substrates. There was a poor correlation between the activity of the medium chain acyl-CoA synthetase and glycine conjugation of eleven substituted benzoic acids. These findings suggest that the present medium chain acyl-CoA synthetase is involved in glycine conjugation of the substituted acids in mouse kidney mitochondria, but there may be a larger contribution of another isoenzyme.