Effects of in-season (5 weeks) creatine and pyruvate supplementation on anaerobic performance and body composition in American football players

Int J Sport Nutr. 1999 Jun;9(2):146-65. doi: 10.1123/ijsn.9.2.146.


The purpose of this investigation was to study the efficacy of two dietary supplements on measures of body mass, body composition, and performance in 42 American football players. Group CM (n = 9) received creatine monohydrate, Group P (n = 11) received calcium pyruvate, Group COM (n = 11) received a combination of calcium pyruvate (60%) and creatine (40%), and Group PL received a placebo. Tests were performed before (T1) and after (T2) the 50 week supplementation period, during which the subjects continued their normal training schedules. Compared to P and PL, CM and COM showed significantly greater increases for body mass, lean body mass, 1 repetition maximum (RM) bench press, combined 1 RM squat and bench press, and static vertical jump (SVJ) power output. Peak rate of force development for SVJ was significantly greater for CM compared to P and PL. Creatine and the combination supplement enhanced training adaptations associated with body mass/composition, maximum strength, and SVJ; however, pyruvate supplementation alone was ineffective.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Anaerobiosis
  • Body Composition / drug effects*
  • Body Weight
  • Creatine / administration & dosage*
  • Dietary Supplements*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Muscle Contraction
  • Muscle, Skeletal / drug effects
  • Muscle, Skeletal / physiology
  • Physical Exertion / drug effects*
  • Placebos
  • Pyruvic Acid / administration & dosage*


  • Placebos
  • Pyruvic Acid
  • Creatine