Comprehensive mutation analysis of TSC1 using two-dimensional DNA electrophoresis with DGGE

Ann Hum Genet. 1998 Nov;62(Pt 6):491-504. doi: 10.1046/j.1469-1809.1998.6260491.x.


Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterised by the development of benign tumors in multiple organs often causing serious neurologic impairment. To develop a reliable genetic test for TSC, two-dimensional electrophoresis with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (2D DGGE) has been developed to detect mutations in TSC1. The 23 exons of TSC1 were amplified using two rounds of PCR. In the first round, all coding regions of TSC1 were amplified in four fragments ranging in size from 7.4 kb to 9.9 kb. In the second round, 32 fragments representing 23 exons were amplified using primers designed to avoid overlapping fragments and with a GC clamp on one end to optimise melting characteristics. These exon fragments were then separated by size in the first dimension using a polyacrylamide gel, and by melting characteristics in the second dimension using a urea/formamide gradient to yield 32 distinct bands. If a mutation is present, four bands instead of one, are typically observed. During the development of this assay, we analysed 63 patient samples with known TSC1 mutations from prior studies. These 63 patients had 68 known mutations or polymorphisms. With DGGE, all 68 of these were identified (45 point mutations, 3 small insertions, 20 small deletions) and an additional 27 single base variants were discovered. To evaluate the assay, we analysed 19 of these samples in a blinded study. In the blinded analysis, 19/20 (95%) known mutations or polymorphisms were detected. The single missed mutation in the blinded analysis could be identified in retrospect and the assay was modified accordingly. During this study, we identified 2 new mutations (exon 8 and exon 15), a new polymorphism (intron 4), and the first variant identified in a non-coding exon (exon 2).

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Base Sequence
  • DNA Mutational Analysis*
  • DNA Primers
  • Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional / methods*
  • Humans
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Mutation
  • Point Mutation
  • Proteins / genetics*
  • Tuberous Sclerosis Complex 1 Protein
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins


  • DNA Primers
  • Proteins
  • TSC1 protein, human
  • Tuberous Sclerosis Complex 1 Protein
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins