The association between cervical neoplasia and certain HLA phenotypes observed in different studies has not been consistent. By serological typing, the association between HLA antigens, cervical carcinoma and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) was studied in a group of 172 and 116 patients, respectively. We demonstrated an increased frequency of B63 in patients with HPV types other than HPV 16 or 18, and B55 in patients that were negative for all HPV types. The association between cervical carcinoma and DQ3, described in various populations, was not observed in the present study. However, we confirmed other previously observed associations between cervical cancer and class II antigens, i.e., a positive correlation with DR15 irrespective of the HPV status, with DR3 in patients harboring HPV types other than HPV 16 or 18, and with DR11 among HPV 16 positive patients. In contrast, a negative correlation between DR13 and HPV positive cervical cancer was observed which suggests protection of this antigen against HPV-associated cervical cancer. A slight increase of DR15 and DQ4 antigens was observed in CIN patients, suggesting that these specific HLA antigens may be important in determining the risk of CIN.