In spondylocostal dysostosis (SD), vertebral-segmentation defects are associated with rib anomalies. This results in short-trunk short stature, nonprogressive kyphoscoliosis, and radiological features of multiple hemivertebrae and rib fusions. SD can be familial, and both autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive (AR) inheritance have been reported, but no genes have been identified or localized for nonsyndromic SD in humans. We performed genomewide scanning by homozygosity mapping in a large consanguineous ARSD Arab Israeli family with six definitely affected members. Significant linkage was found to chromosome 19q13, with a LOD score of 6.9. This was confirmed in a second Pakistani family with three affected members, with a LOD score of 2.4. The combined-haplotype data identify a critical region between D19S570 and D19S908, an interval of 8.5 cM on 19q13.1-19q13.3. This is the first study to localize a gene for nonsyndromic SD. ARSD is clinically heterogeneous and is likely to result from mutations in developmental genes or from regulating transcription factors. Identification of these genes will improve the understanding of the molecular processes contributing to both normal and abnormal human vertebral development.