Recombinant humanized antivascular endothelial growth factor (rhuMAbVEGF) is a monoclonal IgG1 antibody that is being developed as an antiangiogenic agent for use in treating a variety of solid tumors. Preclinical safety studies included an immunohistochemical tissue cross-reactivity study, in vitro hemolytic potential and blood compatibility studies, and multiple dose toxicity studies. Toxicity studies were conducted in cynomolgus monkey because rhuMAbVEGF is pharmacologically active in this species and does not bind rat or mouse vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Following twice weekly administration of rhuMAbVEGF for 4 or 13 wk, young adult cynomolgus monkeys exhibited physeal dysplasia characterized by a dose-related increase in hypertrophied chondrocytes, subchondral bony plate formation, and inhibition of vascular invasion of the growth plate. In addition, decreased ovarian and uterine weights and an absence of corpora lutea were observed in females receiving 10 and 50 mg/kg/dose in the 13-wk study. Both the physeal and ovarian changes were reversible with cessation of treatment. No other treatment-related effects were observed following rhuMAbVEGF administration at doses up to 50 mg/kg. These findings indicate that VEGF is required for longitudinal bone growth and corpora lutea formation and that rhuMAbVEGF can reversibly inhibit physiologic neovascularization at these sites.