Neuroendocrine influences and repercussions of the menopause

Endocr Rev. 1999 Jun;20(3):243-8. doi: 10.1210/edrv.20.3.0364.


In summary, the evidence that both the ovary and the brain are key pacemakers in the menopause is compelling. Our appreciation that estrogens are important neurotrophic and neuroprotective factors has grown rapidly. Future studies will allow us to better understand the ensemble of factors that interact to maintain regular reproductive cyclicity and how this precise dynamic balance changes with age. Furthermore, understanding how estrogen exerts trophic and protective actions should lead to its use as an important therapeutic agent in the maintenance of normal neural function during aging and after injury.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Aging
  • Brain / physiology
  • Female
  • Hormones / physiology
  • Humans
  • Menopause / physiology*
  • Middle Aged
  • Neurosecretory Systems / physiology*
  • Ovary / physiology


  • Hormones