Effect of flaxseed consumption on urinary estrogen metabolites in postmenopausal women

Nutr Cancer. 1999;33(2):188-95. doi: 10.1207/S15327914NC330211.


Flaxseed, the richest known source of plant lignans, has been shown to have chemoprotective effects in animal and cell studies. Some of its effects may be mediated through its influence on endogenous hormone production and metabolism. Two competing pathways in estrogen metabolism involve production of the 2-hydroxylated and 16 alpha-hydroxylated metabolites. Because of the proposed differences in biological activities of these metabolites, the balance of the two pathways has been used as a biomarker for breast cancer risk. We examined the effects of flaxseed consumption on urinary estrogen metabolite excretion in postmenopausal women. Twenty-eight postmenopausal women were studied for three seven-week feeding periods in a randomized crossover design. During the feeding periods, subjects consumed their usual diets plus ground flaxseed (0, 5, or 10 g/day). Urinary excretion of the estrogen metabolites 2-hydroxyestrogen (2-OHEstrogen) and 16 alpha-hydroxyestrone (16 alpha-OHE1) as well as their ratio, 2/16 alpha-OHE1, was measured by enzyme immunoassay. Flaxseed supplementation significantly increased urinary 2-OHEstrogen excretion (p < 0.0005) and the urinary 2/16 alpha-OHE1 ratio (p < 0.05) in a linear, dose-response fashion. There were no significant differences in urinary 16 alpha-OHE1 excretion. These results suggest that flaxseed may have chemoprotective effects in postmenopausal women.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Estrogens / urine*
  • Female
  • Flax*
  • Humans
  • Lignans / administration & dosage
  • Lignans / pharmacology*
  • Middle Aged
  • Postmenopause*
  • Seeds*


  • Estrogens
  • Lignans