Interleukin (IL)-4 plays an important role in IgE synthesis in B cells and in Th2 differentiation in T cells. IL-4 conducts its biological activities through binding to the IL-4 receptor (IL-4R) on the surface of target cells. IL-4R are thought to be composed of the IL-4R alpha chain (IL-4R alpha) and either the IL-2R gamma chain or the IL-13R alpha chain. We have previously shown that the membrane-proximal portion in the cytoplasmic domain of the human IL-4R alpha (hIL-4R alpha) is critical for proliferation, generation of germline epsilon transcript, and activation of STAT6, based on analyses of truncated hIL-4R alphas. In this study, we found that p47phox, an activator of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase, binds to this portion by the two-hybrid system. Furthermore, we observed the association of p47phox with the hIL-4R alpha in B cells derived from a normal donor. These results suggest that p47phox is involved in the signal transduction of IL-4 in B cells. However, activation of STAT6, CD23 expression, and IgE synthesis induced by IL-4 were not affected in p47phox-deficient patients, which raises the possibility that p47phox may be important in other signaling activities as well in B cells.