Objective: This study investigated whether postprandial metabolic responses to bread could be lowered by substituting high amylose maize starch for a part of the flour.
Design and subjects: Eight healthy subjects consumed test meals of equivalent nutritional composition based on white wheat bread, bread rich in amylose (HAWB) and spaghetti as a breakfast meal. Blood samples were collected to measure insulin and glucose concentration during two hours after consumption. The degree of starch crystallinity was investigated by X-ray diffraction and DSC analysis.
Results: HAWB produced low glycaemic (60 +/- 18) and insulinaemic (57 +/- 20) indexes similar to those of spaghetti (83 +/- 46, 61 +/- 16). In vitro amylase hydrolysis of the three foods showed that high amylose content in HAWB significantly lowered starch degradation in bread without affecting hydrolysis kinetics. Addition of amylose in dough increased the resistant starch content of HAWB (14% of dry matter). The resistant starch fraction was mainly composed of crystalline amylose (B-type X-ray diffraction pattern, melting temperature 105 degrees C) attributable to native high amylose maize starch incompletely gelatinised during bread-cooking.
Conclusions: Bread produced by the substitution of high amylose maize starch for a part of wheat flour showed a low glycaemic index. Resistant starch in HAWB corresponded to native crystalline amylose not gelatinised during normal bread-processing conditions.