BRCA1 is a cell cycle-regulated nuclear protein that is phosphorylated mainly on serine and to a lesser extent on threonine residues. Changes in phosphorylation occur in response to cell cycle progression and DNA damage. Specifically, BRCA1 undergoes hyperphosphorylation during late G1 and S phases of the cell cycle. Here we report that BRCA1 is phosphorylated in vivo at serine 1497 (S1497), which is part of a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) consensus site. S1497 can be phosphorylated in vitro by CDK2-cyclin A or E. BRCA1 coimmunoprecipitates with an endogenous serine-threonine protein kinase activity that phosphorylates S1497 in vitro. This cellular kinase activity is sensitive to transfection of a dominant negative form of CDK2 as well as the application of the CDK inhibitors p21 and butyrolactone I but not p16. Furthermore, BRCA1 coimmunoprecipitates with CDK2 and cyclin A. These results suggest that the endogenous kinase activity is composed of CDK2-cyclin complexes, at least in part, concordant with the G1/S-specific increase in BRCA1 phosphorylation.