Objective: To investigate the risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and the coexistence of human papilloma virus (HPV) infection in renal transplant patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy.
Materials and methods: Cervical Papanicolaou (Pap) smear and colposcopic examinations were performed in 48 renal transplant patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy. Microbiological and histopathologic findings were discussed.
Results: The patients were evaluated as to cervical neoplasia risk factors and the results were found to be statistically insignificant (p>0.05). Genital neoplasia was encountered in 20 of the 48 renal transplant patients. Koilocytosis developed in 6 out of 8 (75%) patients who were receiving high dose immunosuppressive therapy due to transplant rejection. HPV was found in 2 out of 48 patients; these 2 patients had koilocytosis in their cervical biopsies. The difference between the positive predictive value of colposcopic evaluation and the Pap smear was found to be insignificant (p>0.05). However, if colposcopy had not been performed in two cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia class I (CIN-I) and in one case of cervical microinvasive carcinoma, the cases would have been incorrectly diagnosed as normal by the false-negative results of the Pap smear.
Conclusion: Renal transplant patients who were undergoing immunosuppressive therapy were found to be at increased risk of developing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. All the patients using immunosuppressive agents should be followed-up by Pap smears every six months and by colposcopic evaluation every year. Avoiding high-risk sexual acts will decrease the risk of HPV transmission and the risk of genital neoplasia as well.