Assignment of circadian function for the Neurospora clock gene frequency

Nature. 1999 Jun 10;399(6736):584-6. doi: 10.1038/21190.


Circadian clocks consist of three elements: entrainment pathways (inputs), the mechanism generating the rhythmicity (oscillator), and the output pathways that control the circadian rhythms. It is difficult to assign molecular clock components to any one of these elements. Experiments show that inputs can be circadianly regulated and outputs can feed back on the oscillator. Mathematical simulations indicate that under- or overexpression of a gene product can result in arrhythmicity, whether the protein is part of the oscillator or substantially part of a rhythmically expressed input pathway. To distinguish between these two possibilities, we used traditional circadian entrainment protocols on a genetic model system, Neurospora crassa.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Biological Clocks / genetics*
  • Circadian Rhythm / genetics*
  • Fungal Proteins / genetics*
  • Fungal Proteins / physiology
  • Genes, Fungal*
  • Light
  • Mutation
  • Neurospora / genetics*
  • Neurospora / physiology
  • Neurospora / radiation effects
  • RNA, Fungal / metabolism
  • RNA, Messenger / metabolism
  • Spores, Fungal / physiology
  • Temperature


  • FRQ protein, Neurospora crassa
  • Fungal Proteins
  • RNA, Fungal
  • RNA, Messenger