Objective: To investigate the natural history of the triad of gastric stromal sarcoma, pulmonary chondroma, and extra-adrenal paraganglioma, a rare syndrome of unknown cause primarily affecting young women.
Methods: Mayo Clinic records, the world literature, and the author's files were searched for patients with all or 2 of the 3 tumors.
Results: Seventy-nine patients, 67 women and 12 men, were identified, 17 (22%) with the 3 tumors and 62 (78%) with 2 tumors. Forty-two (53%) had gastric and pulmonary tumors, the most common combination. The longest interval between detection of the first and second components was 26 years (mean, 8.4 years; median, 6 years). Follow-up ranged from 1 year to 49 years (mean, 20.6 years; median, 20 years). Sixty-four patients (81%) were alive, 19 (24%) apparently free of disease and 45 (57%) with residual or metastatic tumors. Thirty-two patients (41%) had had 1 or more local recurrences of the gastric sarcoma; the longest interval to first recurrence was 36 years. Twenty-one survivors (27%) had hepatic metastatic gastric sarcoma with follow-up of 1 year to 25 years (mean, 9.3 years; median, 7 years). Fifteen patients (19%) were dead, 10 (13%) of whom died of the disorder. Ten patients (13%) had nonfunctioning adrenocortical tumors. Two patients each had a sibling with 1 component of the triad.
Conclusions: The triad is a chronic, persistent, and indolent disease. Benign adrenocortical tumors are a component of the condition. The disorder may be familial.