We studied the effect of dietary vinegar on calcium absorption by using ovariectomized rats fed on a low-calcium diet. The apparent absorption of calcium was higher when the rats were fed on a diet containing 1.6% vinegar for 32 days than when fed on a diet without vinegar (P < 0.05). The calcium content in the femur of the rats given diets containing 0.4% and 1.6% vinegar were also higher (P < 0.05). The serum parathyroid hormone level was lower and the crypt depth of the duodenum thicker in the rats fed on a diet containing 1.6% vinegar (P < 0.05). These results suggest that dietary vinegar enhanced intestinal calcium absorption by improving calcium solubility and by the trophic effect of the acetic acid contained in vinegar, which would reduce the bone turnover caused by ovariectomy and be helpful in preventing osteoporosis.