Compatibility problems in car-to-car frontal, side, single car and car-to-pedestrian collisions in Japan are discussed using traffic accident data. The number of serious and fatal injuries is investigated for the subject car and other cars, which are categorized by their class and mass. The aggressivity of the cars is calculated by the number of fatalities, fatality rates and by the number of car registrations. The results show that in car-to-car frontal collisions, cars with a mass of 1150 kg are the most compatible among the current car population. In both car-to-car frontal and side collisions, the sports utility vehicle and mini car are found to be the most incompatible car types with high and low aggressivity, respectively. On the other hand, the accident data show that the wagon and midsize sedan are the most compatible car types. The compatibility of fixed objects in the road environment with cars and cars with pedestrians is also discussed. In a single car collision with a fixed object, the guardrail is the most compatible object and can reduce the fatality rate on prefecture roads by about 60%. The front geometry of the car has large effect on compatibility with a pedestrian.