The influence of head restraint and occupant factors on peak head/neck kinematics in low-speed rear-end collisions

Accid Anal Prev. 1999 Jul;31(4):393-407. doi: 10.1016/s0001-4575(98)00077-3.


Prior two-way analyses of variance showed that the peak kinematic response of the head and neck of subjects exposed to low-speed rear-end collisions was related to speed change and gender, however potential reasons for this gender dependence were not determined. Using multiple linear regression, this study further examined these response data to determine the relative influence of specific factors, including subject anthropometry, neck strength, cervical range of motion, seated posture and head restraint position, which may have been responsible for the previously-observed gender dependence. The results of this analysis showed that vehicle speed change and relative head restraint position explained the largest proportion of the observed variation in peak occupant kinematic response. Seated posture measures also explained some of the variation in kinematic response. The current analysis prioritizes which variables to explore more thoroughly in future research and which variables should be carefully controlled in future studies.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acceleration
  • Accidents, Traffic / prevention & control*
  • Adult
  • Anthropometry*
  • Biomechanical Phenomena
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Restraint, Physical*
  • Risk Factors
  • Whiplash Injuries / etiology
  • Whiplash Injuries / prevention & control*