Given the preceding review, differentiating the complications of parenteral drug use, HIV disease, and the toxicity of the drugs such as alcohol or cocaine may be a difficult matter for clinicians. The risk for coexisting morbidities is high. Thus, obtaining accurate and complete medical histories is of paramount importance. Drug-abuse treatment and follow-up medical care after an acute complication often involves multiple health care providers. The integration of primary prevention plans with the reinforcement of drug abstinence requires time, commitment, and the coordination of services. This integration should be a priority for individual patients as well as for public health planning.