There is a need to improve the ability of subunit vaccines to induce CD8(+) CTL responses in humans, especially for vaccines used to prevent illness by organisms that undergo antigenic variation at their major neutralizing antibody sites, e.g., influenza A viruses and human immunodeficiency virus. Murine models have demonstrated the protective role of cross-reactive CTL against influenza A virus antigenic drift. We tested the ability of an adjuvanted carrier (Iscomatrix) to help human antigen-presenting cells present formalin-killed influenza vaccine to human CD8(+) CTL clones in vitro and in vaccinated humans. The results of a randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical study demonstrate that a single dose of a vaccine formulated into Iscom particles increased influenza A virus-specific CTL memory in 50-60% of recipients, compared to 5% of the recipients of the standard influenza vaccine.
Copyright 1999 Academic Press.