Augmentation of human influenza A virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte memory by influenza vaccine and adjuvanted carriers (ISCOMS)

Virology. 1999 Jul 5;259(2):256-61. doi: 10.1006/viro.1999.9765.


There is a need to improve the ability of subunit vaccines to induce CD8(+) CTL responses in humans, especially for vaccines used to prevent illness by organisms that undergo antigenic variation at their major neutralizing antibody sites, e.g., influenza A viruses and human immunodeficiency virus. Murine models have demonstrated the protective role of cross-reactive CTL against influenza A virus antigenic drift. We tested the ability of an adjuvanted carrier (Iscomatrix) to help human antigen-presenting cells present formalin-killed influenza vaccine to human CD8(+) CTL clones in vitro and in vaccinated humans. The results of a randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical study demonstrate that a single dose of a vaccine formulated into Iscom particles increased influenza A virus-specific CTL memory in 50-60% of recipients, compared to 5% of the recipients of the standard influenza vaccine.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Clinical Trial, Phase I
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Humans
  • ISCOMs / administration & dosage*
  • ISCOMs / immunology
  • Immunologic Memory*
  • Influenza A virus / immunology*
  • Influenza Vaccines / administration & dosage*
  • Influenza Vaccines / immunology
  • Middle Aged
  • T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic / immunology*
  • Vaccination


  • ISCOMs
  • Influenza Vaccines