Fifteen to 30% of patients develop acute renal failure (ARF) following rhabdomyolysis and rhabdomyolysis accounts for 5 to 9% of all ARF. Experimental studies revealed two critical factors that predispose to myoglobinuric ARF: hypovolemia/dehydration and aciduria. At the nephron level, three basic mechanisms underlie heme protein toxicity: renal vasoconstriction with decreased renal blood flow, intraluminal cast formation and direct heme protein-induced cytotoxicity. During the early phase of myoglobinuric ARF, hemodynamic process are mainly involved in glomerumar filtration rate decrease while tubular mechanisms occur in the late phase. Critical factors which predispose to myoglobinuric ARF in animal models--i.e. hypovolemia/dehydration and aciduria--are also encountered in human epidemiological studies. Prevention of myoglobinuric ARF rely on rapid and adequate correction of fluid deficits with saline, bicarbonates and mannitol. The choice of hemodialysis technique in the case of constituted ARF strongly depends on the site of intervention, especially in the case of rescue operation. The care of myoglobinuric ARF in intensive care unit do not differ from this of ARF from other causes.