Lymph node dissemination is a major prognostic factor in human cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying lymph node metastasis are poorly understood. Recently, vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) was identified as a ligand for VEGF receptor-3 (VEGFR-3/Flt-4) and the expression of VEGFR-3 was found to be highly restricted to the lymphatic endothelial cells. In this report, we investigated the expression of VEGF-C and VEGFR-3 in human prostatic carcinoma tissue by using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical staining respectively. Expression of VEGF-C mRNA in prostatic carcinoma was significantly higher in lymph node-positive group than in lymph node-negative group. In addition, the number of VEGFR-3-positive vessels was increased in stroma surrounding VEGF-C-positive prostatic carcinoma cells. These results suggest that the expression of VEGF-C in prostatic carcinoma cells is implicated in the lymph node metastasis.