Isolation and characterization of the three Waxy genes encoding the granule-bound starch synthase in hexaploid wheat

Gene. 1999 Jun 24;234(1):71-9. doi: 10.1016/s0378-1119(99)00178-x.


Complete genomic DNA sequences of three homoeologous Waxy structural genes, located on the chromosomes 7A, 4A, and 7D in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Chinese Spring), were separately determined and analyzed. Those structural genes in lengths from start to stop codon were 2781bp in Wx-7A, 2794bp in Wx-4A, and 2862bp in Wx-7D, each of which consisted of 11 exons and ten introns. They were closely similar to one another in the nucleotide sequences, with 95.6-96.3% homology in mature protein regions, 88. 7-93.0% in transit-peptide regions, and 70.5-75.2% in the introns. These wheat Waxy genes were GC-rich when compared with standard values for plant genomes reported so far. This was reflected in the extremely high G/C occupation frequency at the third position of the codons in the coding regions. The sequence divergence in the exon regions was mostly due to the substitution of nucleotides, whereas that found in the introns was attributed to substitution, insertion and/or deletion of nucleotides. Only the Wx-4A gene contained a trinucleotide insertion (CAA) in the region encoding the transit peptide. Most of the substitutions observed in the exon regions were categorized as synonymous, and higher sequence similarities (96.5-97. 4%) were conserved at the protein level. The phylogenetic tree obtained in terms of the amino acid sequence variations showed a well-resolved phylogenetic relationship among wheat Waxy genes and those from other plants.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Base Sequence
  • Codon, Initiator
  • Codon, Terminator
  • DNA, Plant
  • Genes, Plant
  • Genome, Plant
  • Introns
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Plant Proteins / genetics*
  • Polyploidy
  • Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
  • Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid
  • Starch Synthase / genetics*
  • Triticum / enzymology
  • Triticum / genetics*


  • Codon, Initiator
  • Codon, Terminator
  • DNA, Plant
  • Plant Proteins
  • waxy protein, plant
  • Starch Synthase

Associated data

  • GENBANK/AB019622
  • GENBANK/AB019623
  • GENBANK/AB019624