Purpose: Our purpose was to determine the association between sonographically detected subacromial/subdeltoid (SA/SD) bursal and biceps tendon sheath effusions and arthrographically proven rotator cuff tears.
Methods: Shoulder sonography reports and sonograms of 105 shoulders in 102 patients who also underwent arthrography were retrospectively reviewed for the presence of fluid within the biceps tendon sheath and SA/SD bursa. Reports and sonograms for 151 asymptomatic shoulders were also reviewed.
Results: Biceps tendon sheath effusion and/or bursal fluid were detected in 50 (48%) of 105 shoulders. Fifty-one patients had rotator cuff tears; 28 of them had effusions at 1 or both sites. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (PPV) of biceps tendon sheath effusions for diagnosing rotator cuff tear were 35%, 74%, and 56%, respectively. For SA/SD bursal effusions, the sensitivity, specificity, and PPV were 8%, 94%, and 57%, respectively. For combined biceps tendon sheath and bursal effusions, the sensitivity, specificity, and PPV were 12%, 91%, and 54%, respectively. There was no statistically significant association between rotator cuff tears and effusions in the biceps tendon sheath, SA/SD bursa, or both. Among the 151 asymptomatic shoulders, 12 (7.9%) had biceps tendon sheath fluid, 5 (3.3%) had SA/SD bursal effusion, and 2 (1.3%) had both biceps tendon sheath and bursal effusions.
Conclusions: The sonographic detection of intraarticular fluid, SA/SD bursal fluid, or both has a low sensitivity and PPV in the diagnosis of rotator cuff tears. Isolated intra-articular and/or SA/SD bursal effusions are not reliable signs of rotator cuff tear.