Background and objectives: Familial hyperparathyroidism may occur as familial isolated hyperparathyroidism (FIHP) or as part of an inherited syndrome, in particular multiple endocrine neoplasia types 1 and 2A (MEN1, MEN2A) and hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumour (HPT-JT) syndrome. The localization of the genes responsible for these syndromes has enabled genetic screening of families with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) to be carried out. This has important clinical implications in terms of individual follow-up and management. We previously reported a large FIHP family with an increased risk of parathyroid cancer and excluded its linkage to MEN1, MEN2 and PTH genes. Here we re-analysed this family and performed genetic linkage to the HPT-JT locus in chromosome 1q21-q32. Loss of heterozygosity studies of 1q21-q32, 11q13 and X chromosome were also performed.
Patients and design: We studied 19 family members, aged 6-63 years. High molecular weight DNA was isolated from peripheral blood samples from 17 family members. For the two deceased individuals, DNA was extracted from normal paraffin embedded tissues.
Measurements: All individuals (except two deceased patients) had serum corrected calcium, inorganic phosphate, intact PTH, prolactin and various pancreatic hormones, measured on fasting blood samples. Twenty microsatellite markers were examined for the 1q21-q32 region, the locus for the HPT-JT gene. Genetic polymorphisms were determined by polymerase chain reaction amplification of genomic DNA and genetic linkage analysis was performed. Loss of heterozygosity studies were performed using paraffin-embedded parathyroid tissues from four affected members.
Results: Seven of the eight affected family members included in this study had biochemical evidence of PHPT and surgically proven parathyroid tumours. Indication of linkage of the disease to the HPT-JT locus was demonstrated with a maximum lod score of 2.32 by two-points linkage analysis. Linkage data were supported by multi-point analysis which gave a maximum lod score of 2.7. Meiotic recombinations detected in one affected individual narrowed the region to 26 cM. As a result of the genetic findings, we re-screened the living family members by orthopantomograph and renal ultrasound, and identified two jaw lesions in two gene carriers. One affected family member demonstrated polycystic kidney disease, thus establishing the association between the two conditions. A reduced penetrance of HPT in females was evident, in agreement with our previous study. No allelic deletion was detected in any tumour at 1q21-q32, 11q13 or X chromosome.
Conclusions: This study illustrates the usefulness and importance of genetic studies in familial isolated hyperparathyroidism families. Our clinical and genetic findings indicate that this previously reported familial isolated hyperparathyroidism family has hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumour syndrome.