Inhibition of oxidative DNA damage, 8-OHdG, and carbonyl contents in smokers treated with antioxidants (vitamin E, vitamin C, beta-carotene and red ginseng)

Cancer Lett. 1998 Oct 23;132(1-2):219-27. doi: 10.1016/s0304-3835(98)00227-4.

Abstract

The chemopreventive effects of antioxidants (vitamin E, beta-carotene, vitamin C and red ginseng) on oxidative DNA and protein (globin) damages were comparatively investigated in the peripheral blood of smokers (> or = 20 cigarettes/day). Smokers showed a lower baseline level of plasma micronutrients (vitamin C and beta-carotene) (P < 0.01) and higher baseline level of oxidative DNA or protein damage than non-smokers (N = 5; P < 0.05). During daily supplementation of antioxidants (200 IU vitamin of E, 9 mg of beta-carotene, 500 mg of vitamin C, or 1.8 g of red ginseng) for 4 weeks, smokers plasma antioxidant concentrations increased linearly, while their mean levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and carbonyl contents decreased compared with those in smokers supplemented with a placebo (P < 0.05). Levels of urinary and plasma cotinine remained steady in smokers regardless of supplementation with antioxidants. 8-OHdG and carbonyl content decreased in a time-dependent manner (as the total intake dose increased) after supplementation with vitamin E (8-OHdG, 33.8%; carbonyl content, 43.6%) or red ginseng (8-OHdG, 31.7%; carbonyl content, 21.3%). These preliminary data suggest that supplementation with antioxidants might protect smokers from oxidative damages and could reduce cancer risk or other diseases caused by free radicals associated with smoking.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • 8-Hydroxy-2'-Deoxyguanosine
  • Adult
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology*
  • Ascorbic Acid / blood
  • Ascorbic Acid / pharmacology
  • Carbon / metabolism
  • Cotinine / blood
  • Cotinine / urine
  • DNA / chemistry
  • DNA / drug effects*
  • DNA / metabolism
  • DNA Damage*
  • Deoxyguanosine / analogs & derivatives
  • Deoxyguanosine / blood
  • Deoxyguanosine / chemistry
  • Deoxyguanosine / metabolism
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Oxidation-Reduction
  • Panax / chemistry
  • Plant Extracts / blood
  • Plant Extracts / chemistry
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology
  • Plants, Medicinal
  • Proteins / drug effects*
  • Proteins / metabolism
  • Smoking*
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Vitamin E / blood
  • Vitamin E / pharmacology
  • beta Carotene / blood
  • beta Carotene / pharmacology

Substances

  • Antioxidants
  • Plant Extracts
  • Proteins
  • beta Carotene
  • Vitamin E
  • Carbon
  • 8-Hydroxy-2'-Deoxyguanosine
  • DNA
  • Deoxyguanosine
  • Cotinine
  • Ascorbic Acid