Dual effects of ADP and adenylylimidodiphosphate on CFTR channel kinetics show binding to two different nucleotide binding sites

J Gen Physiol. 1999 Jul;114(1):55-70. doi: 10.1085/jgp.114.1.55.


The CFTR chloride channel is regulated by phosphorylation by protein kinases, especially PKA, and by nucleotides interacting with the two nucleotide binding domains, NBD-A and NBD-B. Giant excised inside-out membrane patches from Xenopus oocytes expressing human epithelial cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) were tested for their chloride conductance in response to the application of PKA and nucleotides. Rapid changes in the concentration of ATP, its nonhydrolyzable analogue adenylylimidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP), its photolabile derivative ATP-P3-[1-(2-nitrophenyl)ethyl]ester, or ADP led to changes in chloride conductance with characteristic time constants, which reflected interaction of CFTR with these nucleotides. The conductance changes of strongly phosphorylated channels were slower than those of partially phosphorylated CFTR. AMP-PNP decelerated relaxations of conductance increase and decay, whereas ATP-P3-[1-(2-nitrophenyl)ethyl]ester only decelerated the conductance increase upon ATP addition. ADP decelerated the conductance increase upon ATP addition and accelerated the conductance decay upon ATP withdrawal. The results present the first direct evidence that AMP-PNP binds to two sites on the CFTR. The effects of ADP also suggest two different binding sites because of the two different modes of inhibition observed: it competes with ATP for binding (to NBD-A) on the closed channel, but it also binds to channels opened by ATP, which might either reflect binding to NBD-A (i.e., product inhibition in the hydrolysis cycle) or allosteric binding to NBD-B, which accelerates the hydrolysis cycle at NBD-A.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adenosine Diphosphate / pharmacology*
  • Adenosine Triphosphate / analogs & derivatives
  • Adenosine Triphosphate / pharmacology
  • Adenosine Triphosphate / radiation effects
  • Adenylyl Imidodiphosphate / pharmacology*
  • Animals
  • Binding Sites / physiology
  • Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator / metabolism*
  • Electric Conductivity
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Ion Channels / drug effects*
  • Ion Channels / metabolism*
  • Ion Channels / physiology
  • Kinetics
  • Nucleotides / metabolism*
  • Oocytes
  • Photolysis
  • Xenopus


  • CFTR protein, human
  • Ion Channels
  • Nucleotides
  • Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator
  • Adenylyl Imidodiphosphate
  • Adenosine Diphosphate
  • P(3)-1-(2-nitro)phenylethyladenosine 5'-triphosphate
  • Adenosine Triphosphate