Clinical applications of gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of steroids

J Chromatogr A. 1999 May 28;843(1-2):247-74. doi: 10.1016/s0021-9673(99)00153-3.


This review article underlines the importance of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for determination of steroids in man. The use of steroids labelled with stable isotopes as internal standard and subsequent analysis by GC-MS yields up to now the only reliable measurement of steroids in serum. Isotope dilution GC-MS is the reference method for evaluation of routine analysis of serum steroid hormones. GC-MS is an important tool for detection of steroid hormone doping and combined with a combustion furnace and an isotope ratio mass spectrometer the misuse of testosterone by athletes can be discovered. Finally the so called urinary steroid profile by GC and GC-MS is the method of choice for detection of steroid metabolites in health and disease.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anabolic Agents / analysis
  • Androgens / analysis
  • Chromatography, Gas*
  • Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry*
  • Humans
  • Indicator Dilution Techniques
  • Steroids / analysis*
  • Steroids / urine
  • Terminology as Topic


  • Anabolic Agents
  • Androgens
  • Steroids