Frazzled (Fra) is the DCC-like Netrin receptor in Drosophila that mediates attraction; Roundabout (Robo) is a Slit receptor that mediates repulsion. Both ligands are expressed at the midline; both receptors have related structures and are often expressed by the same neurons. To determine if attraction versus repulsion is a modular function encoded in the cytoplasmic domain of these receptors, we created chimeras carrying the ectodomain of one receptor and the cytoplasmic domain of the other and tested their function in transgenic Drosophila. Fra-Robo (Fra's ectodomain and Robo's cytoplasmic domain) functions as a repulsive Netrin receptor; neurons expressing Fra-Robo avoid the Netrin-expressing midline and muscles. Robo-Fra (Robo's ectodomain and Fra's cytoplasmic domain) is an attractive Slit receptor; neurons and muscle precursors expressing Robo-Fra are attracted to the Slit-expressing midline.