The aim of this study was to analyse the refractive state of four different groups of children: those with spastic cerebral palsy (CP), aged between 7 and 81 months (N=50); psychomotor retardation, aged between 19 and 70 months (N=16); other neuromotor dysfunctions, aged between 12 and 75 months (N=37); and without psychomotor retardation, aged between 9 and 73 months (N=181). Refractive errors were determined using cycloplegic retinoscopy and non-cycloplegic retinoscopy (Mohindra's technique). We found higher percentages of hyperopia, tendency toward hyperopia, and other refractive anomalies in all the pathological groups of children than in the non-pathological control groups. Children from both the non-CP pathological control group and the group with psychomotor retardation had similar or even higher levels of hyperopia than children from the group with spastic CP. Our results in different age groups indicate a less effective normal emmetropization course in all the pathological groups of children studied. The correction of refractive errors is needed in these children before the end of the neural plasticity period.