The effect of diurnal and menstrual cyclicity and menopausal status on estrogen metabolites: implications for disease-risk assessment

Steroids. 1999 Mar;64(3):233-43. doi: 10.1016/s0039-128x(98)00081-6.


It has been proposed that the ratio of two estrogen metabolites, 2-hydroxyestrone (2-OHE1) and 16alpha-hydroxyestrone (16alpha-OHE1), may represent a marker to predict a woman's risk for developing breast cancer and other estrogen-related disease. The present studies evaluated the potential confounders of type of sample, diurnal rhythm, menstrual cycle phase, and menopausal status on the ratio of 2/16alpha-OHE1 using an urine-based monoclonal antibody enzyme immunoassay. Two initial studies to compare a 24-h urine collection with a first-morning void and to evaluate diurnal variation were performed. Subsequently, urine samples were collected every other day for 2 months from five premenopausal subjects to assess the impact of the menstrual cycle. Spot urine samples were then obtained from a total of 67 pre, peri-, early post-, and late post-menopausal women to assess the effect of menopausal status. No significant difference in the ratio of 2/16alpha-OHE1 was found between a 24-h and first-morning void or over a 24-h period. No significant difference in the mean ratio of 2/16alpha-OHE1 was found with the menstrual phase. Intra-individual variability was observed in the ratio of 2/16alpha-OHE1, which was attributable to small fluctuations in the small denominator, 16alpha-OHE1. No difference in the ratio of 2/16alpha-OHE1 was observed in groups of women of different menopausal status. The data suggest that a first-morning void is representative of a 24-h collection and that the 2/16alpha-OHE1 ratio is constant throughout a 24-h period. Moreover, menstrual phase and menopausal status do not appear to significantly influence the ratio of 2/16alpha-OHE1.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Circadian Rhythm*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hydroxyestrones / urine*
  • Menopause*
  • Menstrual Cycle*
  • Risk Assessment


  • Hydroxyestrones
  • 16-hydroxyestrone
  • 2-hydroxyestrone