The purpose of the present study was to determine whether manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) overexpression in DU145 human prostate carcinoma cells affected cell reduction-oxidation state (cell redox) and to correlate changes in cell redox status with cell cycle progression and plating efficiency. One MnSOD-overexpressing cell line had no change in other antioxidant enzymes (AEs) (nonadapted clone), whereas a second MnSOD-overexpressing cell line studied had an increase in catalase (CAT) activity (adapted clone). Correlation of biochemical studies with cell cycle studies suggested that heteroploidy observed in the nonadapted MnSOD-overexpressing cell line may be due to increased intracellular peroxides with resultant disruption of the microtubule network, while a decreased mitotic rate was associated with decreased ATP levels in mitosis. In contrast, the decrease in cell growth in the adapted cell line was demonstrated to be due to a decrease in plating efficiency. Our results demonstrate complex effects of AE imbalance on cell growth of DU145 prostate cancer cells.