The association of shift work and nitrous oxide exposure in pregnancy with birth weight and gestational age

Epidemiology. 1999 Jul;10(4):429-36. doi: 10.1097/00001648-199907000-00012.


We examined the relation between shift work and occupational nitrous oxide exposure in the second trimester of pregnancy and birth weight and gestational age at delivery among the members of the Swedish Midwives Association. Eighty-four per cent of members who were registered in 1989 responded to a postal questionnaire concerning occupational exposures, including work schedule and the use of nitrous oxide, in relation to each of their pregnancies. We obtained information on births from the Swedish Medical Birth Register. We used models with allowance for dependence between births for the same woman and found that night work was associated with preterm birth (<37 weeks) [odds ratio (OR) = 5.6; 95% confidence limits (CL) = 1.9, 16.4] and to a lesser extent with low birth weight [OR = 1.9 (95% CL = 0.6, 5.8)]. Three-shift work schedule (day, evening, and night rotation) showed a possible association with preterm birth [OR = 2.3 (95% CL = 0.7, 7.3)]. Exposure to nitrous oxide use was associated with reduced birth weight (-77 gm; 95% CL = -129, -24) and an increase in the odds of infants being small for gestational age (< or = 10th percentile of weight for gestational week) (OR = 1.8; 95% CL = 1.1, 2.8).

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Birth Weight*
  • Confidence Intervals
  • Female
  • Fertility
  • Gestational Age*
  • Humans
  • Logistic Models
  • Maternal Exposure / adverse effects*
  • Midwifery*
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Nitrous Oxide / adverse effects*
  • Occupational Exposure / adverse effects*
  • Odds Ratio
  • Personnel Staffing and Scheduling*
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Trimester, Second
  • Sweden


  • Nitrous Oxide