Upregulation of E2F transcription factors in chemically induced mouse skin tumors

Int J Oncol. 1999 Aug;15(2):387-90. doi: 10.3892/ijo.15.2.387.


E2F family of transcription factors plays an important role in cell cycle regulation, oncogenesis and differentiation. E2Fs are a family of heterodimeric transcription factors composed of E2F-like and DP-like subunits. They regulate expression of specific genes controlling cellular proliferation by binding to specific sequences within the promoter regions of these target genes and affecting their transcription in a cell cycle dependent manner. Recent studies have suggested an essential role of Rb/E2F pathway in the passage of cells through the G1 phase of the cell cycle. To better understand the role of these transcription factors in epithelial tumorigenesis, we compared the expression of various proteins involved in the Rb/E2F pathway in epidermis and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-initiated and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) promoted papillomas on SENCAR mouse skin. Western blot analysis data showed 3.0- to 7.6-fold upregulation of E2F-1, E2F-2, E2F-3, E2F-4 and E2F-5 in tumors compared to normal epidermis. In tumors, the protein expression of DP-1 did not show significant change whereas that of DP-2 showed a 2.2-fold increase. Compared to normal epidermis, a significant upregulation of pRb (6.3-fold) and p107 (13-fold) was also observed in tumors. The protein expression of p130 was not detectable either in normal epidermis or in tumors. These data suggest that the overexpression of E2F proteins may be involved in the G1-S phase dysregulation that occurs during mouse skin tumorigenesis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • 9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene / toxicity*
  • Animals
  • Carcinogens / toxicity*
  • Carrier Proteins*
  • Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism*
  • DNA-Binding Proteins*
  • E2F Transcription Factors
  • E2F1 Transcription Factor
  • E2F3 Transcription Factor
  • E2F4 Transcription Factor
  • E2F5 Transcription Factor
  • Female
  • Mice
  • Papilloma / chemically induced
  • Papilloma / metabolism*
  • Retinoblastoma-Binding Protein 1
  • Skin Neoplasms / chemically induced
  • Skin Neoplasms / metabolism*
  • Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate / toxicity*
  • Transcription Factor DP1
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism*
  • Up-Regulation


  • Arid4a protein, mouse
  • Carcinogens
  • Carrier Proteins
  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • E2F Transcription Factors
  • E2F1 Transcription Factor
  • E2F3 Transcription Factor
  • E2F4 Transcription Factor
  • E2F5 Transcription Factor
  • E2f1 protein, mouse
  • E2f4 protein, mouse
  • Retinoblastoma-Binding Protein 1
  • Tfdp1 protein, mouse
  • Transcription Factor DP1
  • Transcription Factors
  • 9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene
  • Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate