Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, contains a cluster of putative genes homologous to those encoding HpaP, HrcQ, HrcR, HrcS and HrpV in the plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum. In R. solanacearum, these genes form part of a type III secretion-associated pathogenicity island. The order of the genes in B. pseudomallei is directly equivalent to that found in R. solanacearum. The B. pseudomallei proteins share 49.5% (HpaP), 52.6% (HrcQ), 80.0% (HrcR), 72.1% (HrcS) and 46.7% (HrpV) similarity, respectively, with their equivalent R. solanacearum proteins. The presence of type III secretion-associated genes in B. pseudomallei pathogens suggests a possible role for type III secretion systems in the pathogenicity of this organism.