In a prospective, controlled, randomized, multicenter study the immunogenicity and tolerance of a single vaccination (day 0) and two (day 0, 28) booster vaccinations against diphtheria were compared in subjects who had received their last diphtheria vaccination more than 10 years ago. 415 subjects received the first booster vaccination, and 203 were vaccinated twice. The geometric mean diphtheria antitoxin concentration after the first booster (day 28) was 2.354 I.U./ml, and after the second booster (day 56) 2.238 I.U./ml. Prior to the first vaccination 48.9% of the subjects had a diphtheria antitoxin level below 0.1 I.U./m; after the first and second boosters 95.4% and 97.5% of subjects, respectively, showed a level of at least 0.1 I.U./ml. A clear serological effect of a second booster 4 weeks after the first one could not be demonstrated.