Rapid protein-folding assay using green fluorescent protein

Nat Biotechnol. 1999 Jul;17(7):691-5. doi: 10.1038/10904.


Formation of the chromophore of green fluorescent protein (GFP) depends on the correct folding of the protein. We constructed a "folding reporter" vector, in which a test protein is expressed as an N-terminal fusion with GFP. Using a test panel of 20 proteins, we demonstrated that the fluorescence of Escherichia coli cells expressing such GFP fusions is related to the productive folding of the upstream protein domains expressed alone. We used this fluorescent indicator of protein folding to evolve proteins that are normally prone to aggregation during expression in E. coli into closely related proteins that fold robustly and are fully soluble and functional. This approach to improving protein folding does not require functional assays for the protein of interest and provides a simple route to improving protein folding and expression by directed evolution.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Archaeal Proteins / chemistry
  • Archaeal Proteins / genetics
  • Archaeal Proteins / metabolism
  • Directed Molecular Evolution
  • Escherichia coli / genetics
  • Escherichia coli / metabolism*
  • Ferritins / chemistry
  • Ferritins / genetics
  • Ferritins / metabolism
  • Fluorescence
  • Green Fluorescent Proteins
  • Inclusion Bodies
  • Luminescent Proteins* / chemistry
  • Luminescent Proteins* / genetics
  • Luminescent Proteins* / metabolism
  • Point Mutation
  • Protein Biosynthesis
  • Protein Folding*
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins / chemistry
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins / metabolism
  • Solubility
  • Temperature
  • Transcription, Genetic


  • Archaeal Proteins
  • Luminescent Proteins
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins
  • Green Fluorescent Proteins
  • Ferritins