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Review
, 64 (5), 310-9

The Structure of the Nuclear Hormone Receptors

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Review

The Structure of the Nuclear Hormone Receptors

R Kumar et al. Steroids.

Abstract

The functions of the group of proteins known as nuclear receptors will be understood fully only when their working three-dimensional structures are known. These ligand-activated transcription factors belong to the steroid-thyroid-retinoid receptor superfamily, which include the receptors for steroids, thyroid hormone, vitamins A- and D-derived hormones, and certain fatty acids. The majority of family members are homologous proteins for which no ligand has been identified (the orphan receptors). Molecular cloning and structure/function analyses have revealed that the members of the superfamily have a common functional domain structure. This includes a variable N-terminal domain, often important for transactivation of transcription; a well conserved DNA-binding domain, crucial for recognition of specific DNA sequences and protein:protein interactions; and at the C-terminal end, a ligand-binding domain, important for hormone binding, protein: protein interactions, and additional transactivation activity. Although the structure of some independently expressed single domains of a few of these receptors have been solved, no holoreceptor structure or structure of any two domains together is yet available. Thus, the three-dimensional structure of the DNA-binding domains of the glucocorticoid, estrogen, retinoic acid-beta, and retinoid X receptors, and of the ligand-binding domains of the thyroid, retinoic acid-gamma, retinoid X, estrogen, progesterone, and peroxisome proliferator activated-gamma receptors have been solved. The secondary structure of the glucocorticoid receptor N-terminal domain, in particular the taul transcription activation region, has also been studied. The structural studies available not only provide a beginning stereochemical knowledge of these receptors, but also a basis for understanding some of the topological details of the interaction of the receptor complexes with coactivators, corepressors, and other components of the transcriptional machinery. In this review, we summarize and discuss the current information on structures of the steroid-thyroid-retinoid receptors.

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