In this work we report the isolation and characterization of three genes induced by different stress conditions in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These genes, named GRE1, GRE2 and GRE3, were identified by the differential display technique using total RNAs obtained from yeast grown under hyperosmotic conditions. Northern analysis of RNA obtained from different growth conditions shows that their corresponding transcripts accumulate not only in response to osmotic stress but also to ionic, oxidative and heat stress. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences indicated that GRE1, GRE2 and GRE3 correspond to ORFs YPL223C, YOL151W and YHR104W, respectively. Additionally, it suggested that GRE1 encodes a hydrophilic polypeptide that it is not homologous to any known protein but has features resembling the late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins characterized in higher plants; GRE2 encodes a putative reductase with similarity to plant dihydroflavonol-4-reductases; and GRE3 codifies for a keto-aldose reductase highly related to fungal xylose-reductases. The three genes are induced in the late growth phases in agreement with the presence of PDS elements in their promoter regions. The three of them are under the control of the HOG pathway, even though GRE1 and GRE2 promoter regions do not present the consensus core STRE sequence. In addition, GRE1 and GRE3 are regulated negatively by the cAMP-PKA transduction pathway and positively by the transcriptional factors Msn2p and Msn4p. Gene disruptions of the GRE genes did not show a phenotype in any of the tested stress conditions.
Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.