Estimation of nonpaternity in the Mexican population of Nuevo Leon: a validation study with blood group markers

Am J Phys Anthropol. 1999 Jul;109(3):281-93. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1096-8644(199907)109:3<281::AID-AJPA1>3.0.CO;2-3.


A method for estimating the general rate of nonpaternity in a population was validated using phenotype data on seven blood groups (A1A2BO, MNSs, Rh, Duffy, Lutheran, Kidd, and P) on 396 mother, child, and legal father trios from Nuevo León, Mexico. In all, 32 legal fathers were excluded as the possible father based on genetic exclusions at one or more loci (combined average exclusion probability of 0.694 for specific mother-child phenotype pairs). The maximum likelihood estimate of the general nonpaternity rate in the population was 0.118 +/- 0.020. The nonpaternity rates in Nuevo León were also seen to be inversely related with the socioeconomic status of the families, i.e., the highest in the low and the lowest in the high socioeconomic class. We further argue that with the moderately low (69.4%) power of exclusion for these seven blood group systems, the traditional critical values of paternity index (PI > or = 19) were not good indicators of true paternity, since a considerable fraction (307/364) of nonexcluded legal fathers had a paternity index below 19 based on the seven markers. Implications of these results in the context of genetic-epidemiological studies as well as for detection of true fathers for child-support adjudications are discussed, implying the need to employ a battery of genetic markers (possibly DNA-based tests) that yield a higher power of exclusion. We conclude that even though DNA markers are more informative, the probabilistic approach developed here would still be needed to estimate the true rate of nonpaternity in a population or to evaluate the precision of detecting true fathers.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Biomarkers*
  • Birth Order
  • Blood Grouping and Crossmatching / standards*
  • Female
  • Gene Frequency
  • Genetic Markers
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Male
  • Mexico
  • Microsatellite Repeats
  • Paternity*
  • Phenotype
  • Socioeconomic Factors


  • Biomarkers
  • Genetic Markers