Muscle test comparisons of congruent and incongruent self-referential statements

Percept Mot Skills. 1999 Jun;88(3 Pt 1):1019-28. doi: 10.2466/pms.1999.88.3.1019.


This study investigated differences in values of manual muscle tests after exposure to congruent and incongruent semantic stimuli. Muscle testing with a computerized dynamometer was performed on the deltoid muscle group of 89 healthy college students after repetitions of congruent (true) and incongruent (false) self-referential statements. The order in which statements were repeated was controlled by a counterbalanced design. The combined data showed that approximately 17% more total force over a 59% longer period of time could be endured when subjects repeated semantically congruent statements (p < .001). Order effects were not significant. Over-all, significant differences were found in muscle-test responses between congruent and incongruent semantic stimuli.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Arm / physiology*
  • Biomechanical Phenomena
  • Ergometry / statistics & numerical data*
  • Female
  • Functional Laterality / physiology
  • Humans
  • Kinesiology, Applied
  • Male
  • Muscle Contraction / physiology
  • Muscle, Skeletal / physiology*
  • Physical Exertion / physiology
  • Self Concept*
  • Semantics
  • Shoulder Joint / physiology
  • Verbal Behavior / physiology*