Assessing the multidimensionality of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire

Psychol Rep. 1999 Jun;84(3 Pt 1):927-35. doi: 10.2466/pr0.1999.84.3.927.


The present study assessed a variety of factor structures identified by various authors as underlying the 12-item General Health Questionnaire and proposed an alternative structure based on an analysis of item content. Using confirmatory factor analytic techniques (LISREL), the data indicated that the presently proposed factor structure, comprising three factors (Self-esteem, Stress, and successful Coping), fits better than structures previously identified. The findings contribute to understanding of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire by separating Self-esteem and Stress, two dimensions often treated as one factor, and by identifying a third dimension of Successful Coping which is proposed to reflect individuals' perceived efficacy in interacting with the environment.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Female
  • Health Status Indicators
  • Health Status*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Surveys and Questionnaires*