Neovascularization facilitates tumour growth and metastasis formation. In our laboratory, we attempt to identify clinically available oral efficacious drugs for antiangiogenic activity. Here, we report which non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can inhibit corneal neovascularization, induced by basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) or vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). This antiangiogenic activity may contribute to the known effects of NSAIDs on gastric ulcers, polyps and tumours. We found that sulindac was one of the most potent antiangiogenic NSAIDs, inhibiting bFGF-induced neovascularization by 50% and VEGF-induced neovascularization by 55%. Previously, we reported that thalidomide inhibited growth factor-induced corneal neovascularization. When we combined sulindac with thalidomide, we found a significantly increased inhibition of bFGF- or VEGF-induced corneal neovascularization (by 63% or 74% respectively) compared with either agent alone (P < 0.01). Because of this strong antiangiogenic effect, we tested the oral combination of thalidomide and sulindac for its ability to inhibit the growth of V2 carcinoma in rabbits. Oral treatment of thalidomide or sulindac alone inhibited tumour growth by 55% and 35% respectively. When given together, the growth of the V2 carcinoma was inhibited by 75%. Our results indicated that oral antiangiogenic combination therapy with thalidomide and sulindac may be a useful non-toxic treatment for cancer.