F-spondin and mindin: two structurally and functionally related genes expressed in the hippocampus that promote outgrowth of embryonic hippocampal neurons

Development. 1999 Aug;126(16):3637-48. doi: 10.1242/dev.126.16.3637.


Extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins play an important role in early cortical development, specifically in the formation of neural connections and in controlling the cyto-architecture of the central nervous system. F-spondin and Mindin are a family of matrix-attached adhesion molecules that share structural similarities and overlapping domains of expression. Genes for both proteins contain a thrombospondin type I repeat(s) at the C terminus and an FS1-FS2 (spondin) domain. Both the vertebrate F-spondin and the zebrafish mindins are expressed on the embryonic floor plate. In the current study we have cloned the rat homologue of mindin and studied its expression and activity together with F-spondin in the developing rodent brain. The two genes are abundantly expressed in the developing hippocampus. In vitro studies indicate that both F-spondin and Mindin promote adhesion and outgrowth of hippocampal embryonic neurons. We have also demonstrated that the two proteins bind to a putative receptor(s) expressed on both hippocampal and sensory neurons.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Cloning, Molecular
  • Drosophila
  • Drosophila Proteins
  • Extracellular Matrix Proteins / chemistry
  • Extracellular Matrix Proteins / genetics*
  • Extracellular Matrix Proteins / physiology
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental*
  • Growth Substances*
  • Hippocampus / embryology*
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules / chemistry
  • Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules / genetics*
  • Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules / physiology
  • Neurons / physiology*
  • Organ Specificity
  • Peptides*
  • RNA, Messenger / analysis
  • RNA, Messenger / genetics
  • Rats
  • Recombinant Proteins / biosynthesis
  • Recombinant Proteins / chemistry
  • Repetitive Sequences, Amino Acid
  • Sequence Alignment
  • Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
  • Transcription, Genetic
  • Zebrafish
  • Zebrafish Proteins*


  • Drosophila Proteins
  • Extracellular Matrix Proteins
  • Growth Substances
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules
  • Peptides
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Recombinant Proteins
  • Spon1 protein, rat
  • Zebrafish Proteins
  • mindin
  • mspo protein, Drosophila
  • spon1a protein, zebrafish
  • spon2a protein, zebrafish
  • spon2b protein, zebrafish

Associated data

  • GENBANK/AF155196