Regulation of differential growth in the apical hook of Arabidopsis

Development. 1999 Aug;126(16):3661-8.


Arabidopsis seedlings develop a hook-like structure at the apical part of the hypocotyl when grown in darkness. Differential cell growth processes result in the curved hypocotyl hook. Time-dependent analyses of the hypocotyl showed that the apical hook is formed during an early phase of seedling growth and is maintained in a sequential phase by a distinct process. Based on developmental genetic analyses of hook-affected mutants, we show that the hookless mutants (hls1, cop2) are involved in an early aspect of hook development. From time-dependent analyses of ethylene-insensitive mutants, later steps in hook maintenance were found to be ethylene sensitive. Regulation of differential growth was further studied through examination of the spatial pattern of expression of two hormone-regulated genes: an ethylene biosynthetic enzyme and the ethylene receptor ETR1. Accumulation of mRNA for AtACO2, a novel ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid) oxidase gene, occurred within cells predominantly located on the outer-side of the hook and was tightly correlated with ethylene-induced exaggeration in the curvature of the hook. ETR1 expression in the apical hook, however, was reduced by ethylene treatment. Based on the expression pattern of ETR1 and AtACO2 in the hook-affected mutants, a model for hook development and maintenance is proposed.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Oxidoreductases / genetics
  • Arabidopsis / cytology
  • Arabidopsis / genetics
  • Arabidopsis / growth & development*
  • Cell Division
  • Crosses, Genetic
  • Darkness
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental*
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant*
  • Genes, Plant
  • Hypocotyl / cytology
  • Hypocotyl / physiology*
  • Mutagenesis
  • Plant Proteins / genetics
  • Receptors, Cell Surface / genetics


  • Plant Proteins
  • Receptors, Cell Surface
  • ethylene receptors, plant
  • Amino Acid Oxidoreductases
  • 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase