Differential responses to parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) deficiency in the various craniofacial cartilages

Anat Rec. 1999 Aug 1;255(4):452-7. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0185(19990801)255:4<452::AID-AR10>3.0.CO;2-E.


PTHrP null mutant mice exhibit skeletal abnormalities both in the craniofacial region and limbs. In the growth plate cartilage of the null mutant, a diminished number of proliferating chondrocytes and accelerated chondrocytic differentiation are observed. In order to examine the effect of PTHrP deficiency on the craniofacial morphology and highlight the differential feature of the composing cartilages, we examined the various cartilages in the craniofacial region of neonatal PTHrP deficient mice. The major part of the cartilaginous anterior cranial base appeared to be normal in the homozygous PTHrP deficient mice. However, acceleration of chondrocytic differentiation and endochondral bone formation was observed in the posterior part of the anterior cranial base and in the cranial base synchondroses. Ectopic bone formation was observed in the soft tissue-running mid-portion of the Meckel's cartilage, where the cartilage degenerates and converts to ligament in the course of normal development. The zonal structure of the mandibular condylar cartilage was scarcely affected, but the whole condyle was reduced in size. These results suggest the effect of PTHrP deficiency varies widely between the craniofacial cartilages, according to the differential features of each cartilage.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Animals, Newborn
  • Cartilage / abnormalities*
  • Cartilage / embryology
  • Cartilage / metabolism
  • Craniofacial Abnormalities / embryology
  • Craniofacial Abnormalities / genetics*
  • Craniofacial Abnormalities / pathology*
  • Facial Bones / abnormalities
  • Facial Bones / embryology
  • Facial Bones / metabolism
  • Female
  • Heterozygote
  • Homozygote
  • Male
  • Mandibular Condyle / abnormalities
  • Mandibular Condyle / embryology
  • Mandibular Condyle / metabolism
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Mice, Knockout
  • Parathyroid Hormone / deficiency*
  • Parathyroid Hormone / genetics
  • Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein
  • Proteins / genetics*
  • Skull / abnormalities
  • Skull / embryology
  • Skull / metabolism
  • Skull Base / abnormalities
  • Skull Base / embryology
  • Skull Base / metabolism


  • Parathyroid Hormone
  • Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein
  • Proteins