Repressive chromatin must be remodeled to allow for transcriptional activation of genes in eukaryotic cells. Factors that alter chromatin structure to permit access of transcriptional activators, RNA polymerase II and the polymerase-associated general transcription factors to nucleosomal promoter sequences are as highly conserved as the basic mechanism of transcription. One group of promoter restructuring factors that perturbs chromatin in an ATP-dependent manner includes NURF, CHRAC, ACF, the SWI/SNF complex, and SWI/SNF-related proteins. Each member of this group contains a subunit homologous to the DNA-dependent ATPase; however, their individual mechanisms of action are unique. The small amount of SWI/SNF complex (100-200 copies/cell), its affiliation with a select number of inducible genes, and its interaction with the glucocorticoid and estrogen receptors, suggests the SWI/SNF complex might be preferentially targeted to active promoters. The SWI/SNF-related family of RUSH proteins which includes RUSH-1alpha and beta, hHLTF, HIP116, Zbu1, P113, and the transcription factor RUSH-1alpha isolog has been implicated as a highly conserved DNA binding site-specific ATPase.