A variety of different isoforms of mammalian voltage-gated sodium channels have been identified. These channels can be classified into three different types. Eight type 1 isoforms have been identified in the CNS, PNS, skeletal muscle, and heart. All of these channels have been expressed in exogenous systems, and all of the genes have been mapped. Three type 2 isoforms have been identified in heart, uterus, and muscle. These channels diverge from the type 1 channels in critical regions, and have not been functionally expressed, so their significance is unknown. A single isoform identified in the PNS may represent a third class of channels, in that it diverges from both type 1 and 2 channels. The type 3 channel has not been functionally expressed.