The fructose-induced hypertensive rat is a widely used model to study the inter-relationship between hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and high blood pressure. Evidence suggests that hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance may be pathogenic in the development of high blood pressure in this model. To determine the contribution of the sympathetic nervous system towards fructose-induced hypertension, the present study examined the effects of chemical sympathectomy (adrenal medullectomy, followed by weekly 6-hydroxydopamine injections) on plasma insulin levels and systolic blood pressure in control and fructose-induced hypertensive rats. Sympathectomy abrogated the development of both hyperinsulinemia and hypertension in fructose hypertensive rats without affecting these parameters in control rats. These data uncover, for the first time, the primacy of the sympathetic nervous system as a mediator of both elevated plasma insulin levels and high blood pressure in rats fed a high fructose diet.