A possible relationship between the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) deficiency has been proposed. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of CoQ10 on metabolic control in 23 type 2 diabetic patients in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Treatment with CoQ10 100 mg bid caused a more than 3-fold rise in serum CoQ10 concentration (p < 0.001). No correlation was observed between serum CoQ10 concentration and metabolic control. No significant changes in metabolic parameters were observed during CoQ10 supplementation. The treatment was well tolerated and did not interfere with glycemic control, therefore CoQ10 may be used as adjunctive therapy in patients with associated cardiovascular diseases.